Farmapram (alprazolam) is an anxiolytic medicine (tranquilizer), a triazole-benzodiazepine derivative. It has anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, central myorelaxant effect. The mechanism of action of farmapram is to increase inhibitory effect of endogenous GABA in CNS by increasing sensitivity of GABA receptors to the mediator through stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors located in the allosteric center of postsynaptic GABA receptors of ascending activating reticular formation of brain stem and insertion neurons of lateral horns of spinal cord; reduces excitability of subcortical structures of the brain (limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus), inhibits polysynaptic spinal reflexes.
Expressed anxiolytic activity (reduction of emotional tension, easing of anxiety, fear, restlessness) is combined with a moderately pronounced hypnotic effect; it shortens the period of falling asleep, increases the duration of sleep, reduces the number of night awakenings. The mechanism of sleeping pills is inhibition of the reticular formation cells of the brain stem. It reduces the impact of emotional, vegetative and motor stimuli that disturb the mechanism of falling asleep.
Anxiety, neurosis accompanied with a sense of anxiety, danger, worry, tension, sleep disturbance, irritability, as well as somatic disorders; mixed anxiety-depressive states; neurotic reactive-depressive states accompanied with a decrease in mood, loss of interest in surroundings, anxiety, sleep loss, decreased appetite, somatic disorders; anxiety and neurotic depression developed against a background of somatic diseases; panic disorders with or without symptoms
Coma, shock, myasthenia gravis, closed-angle glaucoma (acute attack or predisposition), acute alcohol poisoning (with weakening of vital functions), opioid analgesics, sleeping pills and psychotropic drugs, chronic obstructive respiratory diseases with initial manifestations of respiratory failure acute respiratory failure, severe depression (suicidal tendencies may occur), pregnancy (especially I trimester), lactation, childhood and adolescence under 18 years of age, hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines.
Farmapram (alprazolam) has a toxic effect on the fetus and increases the risk of congenital malformations when used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Continuous use during pregnancy may lead to physical dependence with development of withdrawal syndrome in the newborn. Administration in therapeutic doses later in pregnancy may cause CNS depression in the newborn. Administration immediately before or during delivery may cause respiratory depression, decreased muscle tone, hypotension, hypothermia, and weak sucking (newborn flaccid sucking syndrome) in the newborn. Benzodiazepines may be excreted with breast milk, which may cause drowsiness in the newborn and make feeding difficult. Experimental studies have shown that alprazolam and its metabolites are excreted with breast milk.